人體不到50%的細胞屬於人類 A major scientific discovery is that less than 50% of the cells in the human body belong to humans

據英國廣播公司(BBC)報導,人體裡有過半組成不是人類細胞,而是非人類的微生物細胞群。確切地說,人體中微生物的成份比人體細胞的成份還要多。馬克斯-普朗克研究所(The Max Planck Institute)微生物組學的研究人員表示,人體中的這些微生物對人體健康至關重要。

 

無論我們每天怎樣清洗身體,身體的各個角落依然被微生物所覆蓋。它們包括細菌、病毒、真菌和古菌等。這些種微生物主要聚集在人體的腸道內,因為那裡是黑暗的角落,並且缺乏氧氣。此前,科學家認為人體細胞多於寄存在人體中的微生物,顯然真實情況並不是這樣的。加州大學聖達戈分校的耐特教授說,如果把人體中所有細胞都算在內的話,估計只有43%與人類有關。如果從基因上來看,我們更是處於下風。人類基因組大約由2萬個基因組成,但人體中的微生物群的基因大約在200萬到2000萬個之間。加州理工學院的一名微生物學家薩爾基斯認為,人體中的微生物群是我們身體中的第二個基因組。他認為,每個人都是由自身的DNA再加上人體中微生物的DNA結合起來的。而這些微生物群與人體有著互動並影響著人體。

 

各種微生物在人體中扮演著重要的角色。現代科學已經發現,微生物在人體中的角色。它們在各方面扮演著重要角色,比如:幫助消化、調解人體免疫功能、保護人體免受疾病攻擊,以及生產人體必須的維生素等。這項發現會讓我們重新看待人體中的微生物,而不是像從前那樣把它們當成敵人。過去,人類發明瞭抗生素和疫苗來對付天花、結核桿菌或是超級細菌MRSA等,挽救了無數生命。然而研究人員擔心,在殺死壞菌的同時,也傷害了大量的益菌。研究顯示微生物與帕金森症、炎症性腸病、抑鬱症和自閉症等都有關聯。維康桑格研究所(The Wellcome Trust SangerInstitute)的勞利醫生進行了一項實驗,分別培養健康人與病人的微生物群。事後他表示,在那些病人體內可能缺乏某些細菌。他的想法是,我們應該重新找回那些消失了的益菌。

 

人類微生物群系(Human microbiome)又稱為正常菌群(Normal Flora),是某些微生物與宿主在長期的進化過程中形成共生關係,對宿主無害的一類細菌。它們包括了細菌、真菌、古菌和病毒。這些微生物群主要寄宿在人體的皮膚、外耳道、眼結膜、鼻咽腔、尿道、腸道、消化道和陰道等部位。如果正常菌群與宿主之間,或正常菌群各菌種間的平衡被打破,就會出現菌群失調,致病作用就會顯著,嚴重者會引起二重感染。這種狀況往往是由於長期大量使用抗生素、免疫抑制劑等外來因素引起的。

 

According to the British Broadcasting Corporation ( the BBC ) reported that more than half of the composition of the human body, there are not human cells, but a non-human population of microbial cells. To be precise, there are more microbes in the human body than human cells. Max – Planck Institute ( at The Max Planck Institute researchers of microbial genomics), said the body of these microbes is essential for human health .
 
No matter how we clean our body every day, every corner of our body is still covered by microorganisms. They include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and archaea. These kinds of microorganisms mainly gather in the human intestines, because there are dark corners and lack of oxygen. Previously, scientists believed that there were more human cells than microorganisms deposited in the human body. Obviously, this is not the case. Professor Knight of the University of California, San Dago said that if all the cells in the human body are included, it is estimated that only 43% are related to humans .
 
From a genetic point of view, we are even more at a disadvantage. The human genome consists of about ten thousand genes, but genes of the microbiota in the human body is about 200 Wan Dao 2000 between ten thousand. Sarkis, a microbiologist at the California Institute of Technology, believes that the microbiome in the human body is the second genome in our body. He believes that everyone is by its own DNA together with human microbial DNA combine. These microbiota interact with and affect the human body .
 
Various microorganisms play an important role in the human body. Modern science has discovered the role of microorganisms in the human body. They play an important role in various aspects, such as: helping digestion, mediating the human immune function, protecting the human body from disease attacks, and producing vitamins necessary for the human body . This discovery will allow us to revisit the microbes in the human body instead of treating them as enemies as before. In the past, humans invented antibiotics and vaccines to deal with smallpox, tuberculosis or the superbug MRSA, etc., saving countless lives. However, researchers worry that while killing bad bacteria, they also hurt a lot of good bacteria .
 
Studies have shown that microorganisms are associated with Parkinson’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, depression, and autism . Dr. Laurie from The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute conducted an experiment to cultivate the microbiota of healthy people and patients. Afterwards, he said that certain bacteria may be lacking in those patients. His idea is that we should regain those beneficial bacteria that have disappeared .
 
Human microbiome Human microbiome ), also known as normal flora ( Normal Flora ), is a type of bacteria that forms a symbiotic relationship with the host during the long-term evolutionary process, and is harmless to the host. They include bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses .
These microflora mainly reside on the skin, external auditory canal, conjunctiva, nasopharyngeal cavity, urethra, intestine, digestive tract and vagina .
 
If the balance between the normal flora and the host, or between the various bacterial species of the normal flora, is broken, the flora will be imbalanced, the pathogenic effect will be significant, and severe cases will cause double infection. This situation is often caused by external factors such as long-term use of antibiotics and immunosuppressants .

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